Sirtuins – The Guardians of Youthful Minds and Stem Cells, Leading the Way for Healthier Brains and Promising Discoveries in Neurological Science.
Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) possess the ability to self-renew and, when required, differentiate into various types of nervous system cells. There are molecular pathways that sustain NSC functionality such as the Sirtuin (SIRTs) protein family, specifically SIRT1, SIRT3, and SIRT5, which are involved in the modulation of a variety of cellular processes including neurogenesis and cellular reprogramming. These processes are involved with antioxidant and redox signaling. They have a role in the metabolic switch in neurogenesis regulation, via mitochondria metabolism, particularly through reactive oxygen species and NAD. A better understanding of the mechanisms governing adult neurogenesis holds the potential to revolutionize the treatment of a wide spectrum of conditions such as neurodegenerative, neuropsychiatric, and metabolic diseases.