Type 2 Diabetes as a Redox Disease

Metformin and exercise have opposing redox physiological roles in type 2 diabetes disease

Exercise is known to be beneficial for health, potentially helping to prevent diseases like type 2 diabetes, dementia, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers. However, it’s not entirely clear how exercise affects muscle cells, which produce molecules like hydrogen peroxide that may contribute to this protection. Similarly, while metformin, a common medication for type 2 diabetes, seems to have positive effects on conditions like cancer, Alzheimer’s, and heart disease, we don’t fully understand how it works. Recent research suggests that combining short-term metformin use with exercise doesn’t improve insulin sensitivity as expected. Surprisingly, metformin alone might counteract the oxidative effects of exercise, leading to a different physiological outcome than exercise alone.